(Credit:Samsung) (CBS/AP) Samsung gave trade-show attendees a sneak peek at Windows 8 desktop computers at the Internationale Funkausstellung Berlin (IFA 2012) trade show.
The electronics giant will offer three different choices to people interested in buying a desktop computer equipped with a redesigned version of Windows going on sale this fall.
The personal computers previewed Tuesday by Samsung at the technology conference in Berlin provided one of the first glimpses at the Windows 8 machines scheduled to hit the market on Oct. 26.
Windows 8’s release has been widely anticipated because it’s Microsoft’s most dramatic overhaul of the operating system in at least 17 years. It’s also coming out at a time when PC sales have been slowing as more people rely on smartphones and tablets to surf the Web.
Microsoft reprogrammed Windows 8 so it looks and works more like the touch-based systems on mobile devices. The three new Windows 8 desktops from Samsung will come with a high-definition touch display.
several other major PC makers are expected to unveil their Windows 8 product lines in the upcoming weeks.
Samsung’s Windows 8 computers for the desktop will have suggested prices of $749, $1,099 and $1,699 – depending on the size of the storage drive, the amount of system memory and the size of display screen.
all three models will run on Intel processors.
Windows 8 can be controlled by swiping the applications on the display screen or by using a keyboard or computer mouse.
The touch controls will be available through a mosaic of tiles to show applications and services that can be continuously connected to the Internet.
when relying on a keyboard, users will usually switch to a part of the operating system that looks much like earlier versions of Windows. However, Microsoft left out the familiar “start” button typically found in the bottom left corner of the display screen.
in an effort to minimize the potential frustration caused by Windows 8’s new look, Samsung built its own optional start button that be used to pull up a menu of applications. this feature won’t be found on all Windows 8 PCs and laptops from other manufacturers.
Samsung is expected to introduce its Windows 8 line of laptop computers later this week.
With technology progressing as fast as it is at the present, it is a wonder we do not have a new mass-marketed gadget appearing every few minutes. Personal computers, once predicted to be owned by a mere handful of individuals, are everywhere nowadays. If you are a student a personal computer is virtually a necessity. Accompanying the ever-increasing popularity of the personal computer is a plethora of gadgets and technological advancements. though it may not be every few minutes, it seems as though every couple of months we hear about a computer with more storage space or a new device that one can connect to their computer.
Some devices that appear on the market are either completely superfluous or not so accessible to the entirety of the population, whether it is because of their cost or their limited supply. the costly devices are reserved to those who can afford them, until some new gadget replaces them and the price of these machines decreases, much like any new technology that appears on the market. Those gadgets, which are unnecessary, are not overly practical and the market for these creations is comprised mainly of those with an affinity for such devices. Inventions like webcams, while they are certainly fun to play with, are essentially unnecessary as they have no bearing on the actual operation of the computer and are used largely for leisure computer activities.
The more purposeful advancements in computer technology revolve around those, which increase the computers ability to manage certain tasks and those, which increase the storage space of the computer. many personal computer owners find themselves craving more space to store songs or various other files and often wishing that their computer were faster. though many computers produced today have a excessive storage space, that is, it is nearly impossible to fill a personal computer to capacity, these types of advancements permit a much speedier and more efficient functioning computer.
Back in 2005, we charted 30 years of personal computer market share to show graphically how the industry had developed, who succeeded and when, and how some iconic names eventually faded away completely. with the rise of whole new classes of “personal computers”—tablets and smartphones—it’s worth updating all the numbers once more. and when we do so, we see something surprising: the adoption rates for our beloved mobile devices absolutely blow away the last few decades of desktop computer growth. People are adopting new technology faster than ever before.
Humans are naturally competitive creatures. Not only do we compete with each other for money and power, but we form strong allegiances to various tribes. Whether it’s a favorite sports team or a chosen computing platform, we passionately cheer when they win and feel a punch in our guts when they lose. Companies know this, and they will trumpet their successes and quietly hide their failures. But is it any more important to want one multi-billion dollar company to win over another than it is to root for one arbitrary multi-million dollar athlete? is it anything more than cheerleading?
December 2005: Total share—30 years of personal computer market share figures
Well—there’s certainly plenty of cheerleading, but tracking the rise of fall of market share over time has more serious uses, too. Software developers need to keep track of market share so they can decide where to invest their resources. Consumers may then choose platforms based on software availability. Platforms can live—and sometimes die—by market share. The successes and failures of one generation of platforms affect the next, and ultimately this has an impact on everyone’s digital lives.
Certain lessons from the past can also be applied today, and may even foreshadow what the future holds.
Market share is typically defined as the percentage of a company’s product compared to the total of all products sold in that category over a given period of time. for example, if Pepsi sold 25 percent of all brown carbonated soft drinks in the third quarter of 2010, it would be said to have a 25 percent market share for that quarter.
This sort of measurement works well in the beverage industry. The product is inherently disposable and shifts in market share are small. When you move from carbonated sugar water to the computer industry, as former Apple CEO John Sculley did in 1985, things get considerably more complicated.
In addition to market share, there’s the concept of installed base. For computers, this would be the ratio of one brand or platform that is currently in use compared to the total number of computers in existence. this gets a lot trickier to calculate, because computers are being retired all the time at uneven intervals, and the time they spend being used is also highly variable. Still, it’s an important thing to consider for computer companies, especially if they are trying to break into an already-established market. It’s great if you have a ten percent market share in the first quarter that you sell your new product, but what if the industry has been around for years and countless millions of a competitor’s devices already dominate the landscape?
Many articles on market share confuse the two terms. Some report on installed base using surveys of small groups of users, or look at the server logs of a few websites, and then announce this as market share. Neither of these two methods is especially accurate, and can sometimes produce questionable conclusions. The only reliable way to measure market share is to painstakingly count up all the sales of every product in a single quarter (this article will primarily use this method).
The other place where confusion can reign is in cherry-picking the regions used to provide the data. Companies with dwindling global share will often point to countries where their sales are still strong, or report only retail sales if their direct channel isn’t doing as well. to be fair to everyone, the numbers I am using are for worldwide sales through all channels. with that said, let’s begin by returning to the early days of the “personal computer” revolution.
We tend to forget that the personal computing industry, a cornerstone of the modern world that sells hundreds of millions of units every year, was largely created by a few disaffected nerds in their garages. Established mainframe and minicomputer companies took years even to notice the personal computer. When they finally entered the market, they had decidedly mixed results.
flickr user /dave/null/
The first true “personal computer” was the Altair, invented in 1975 by Ed Roberts. It established most of what came to define the industry: the desktop form factor with attached peripherals, an internal expansion bus for add-on cards, a third-party software ecosystem with Microsoft providing the primary user interface (which in those days was a BASIC interpreter), and various conventions and computer fairs where users and vendors could meet.
Because anyone could enter the market with very little startup cost, the early years of the personal computer featured a dizzying array of models. I once took a copy of a 1980 issue of Computers & Electronics and counted over a hundred different incompatible machines advertised inside. this Wild West landscape couldn’t last for long. Most early companies failed to make the transition from garage to global business.
Four winners emerged from this early era: the Atari 400/800, the Radio Shack TRS-80, the Commodore PET, and the Apple ][. The latter was in last place for the first few years, until a happy accident gave it the industry’s first killer app: the spreadsheet VisiCalc. The PET soon gave way to the VIC-20 and the enormously popular Commodore 64, the first personal computer to really make an impact on the mass market. It would go on to sell 22 million units, which would still be a respectable number for a single new computer model today.
The early market was also much more regional than it is now. The Sinclair ZX-80, ZX-81, and later the Spectrum sold well in their native United Kingdom, but made a smaller dent in the US. Similarly, the Apple ][ sold in much smaller numbers in Europe. The UK had its own unique ecosystem of computers, including the popular BBC Micro, branded after the national broadcaster.
The young industry was shaken to the core when IBM introduced its own Personal Computer in 1981. The IBM PC, Model 5150, wasn’t particularly impressive at launch. It was expensive, and while it did sport a 16-bit CPU capable of addressing up to 1MB of memory, it was underpowered, had no graphics capabilities out of the box, and had no sound chip. Compared to a much cheaper and more colorful Commodore 64, it hardly seemed like a contender.
Two things changed the fate of the IBM PC: the IBM brand name and the clones. Ironically, the PC was easy to clone mostly because it was so uncomplicated, and it was uncomplicated because it had been hastily designed from off-the-shelf parts to get to market before some other computer maker took the market away from IBM forever. It had no custom chips, just a CPU hooked up to some RAM and an expansion bus that was fully documented so that third parties could create add-on cards. The only proprietary bit was a simple chip containing the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) code that started the machine up and told all the parts how to communicate with each other. even the operating system was off-the-rack, a hasty CP/M clone purchased by Microsoft.
Competition between the clones brought the price of the PC down, and add-on cards filled the gaps in functionality from the original model. The market story from 1981 to 1985 is largely about the PC—and we could call it a single market because the clones were absolutely, 100 percent compatible—slowly taking more and more market share. other platforms, including the venerable Commodore 64, fell off.
Listing image by Flickr user /dave/null
Although most people have personal computers to conduct private business, some people still rely on the use of public computers. There are people out there who actively try to steal identities and sensitive information through computer use. It is recommended that you don’t conduct any sensitive personal business on shared computers. however, if this is a necessity, here are a few common sense suggestions to protect you on a public computer.
Be Aware of your Surroundings – this is good advice anytime you are out in public, but especially when viewing private information in a public space. You never know who might be watching over your shoulder. Just keep an eye out for anyone or anything that looks suspicious. The technology that’s now available can allow people to take inconspicuous pictures or video of just about anything these days.
Logging in And Logging Out – if you log into a website from a public computer, make sure that you don’t save your login information when prompted. when finished with the site that you are visiting, be sure to log out when you are done. this might sound elementary but it is an important security measure.
Delete Temporary Internet Files – It is a good idea to delete your browsing history to help protect against compromising secure information.
Avoid using Financial Information – if your Facebook or Twitter account is hacked, it probably would not be as troublesome as somebody stealing your credit card number or bank account information. when using a public computer, avoid any financial transactions if possible. Being cautious and smart with public computer use can help prevent costly problems in the future.
A laptop computer or simply laptop (also notebook computer or notebook) is a small mobile personal computer, usually weighing from one to three kilograms, depending on size, materials and other factors.
While the terms laptop and notebook are often used interchangeably, laptop is the older term, introduced in 1983 with the Gavilan SC. Notebook computer is a later coinage, which was used to differentiate smaller devices such as those of the Compaq LTE series in 1989, which were, in contrast to previous laptops, the approximate size of an A4 paper sheet. Either term is often used improperly: due to heat and other issues, many laptops are inappropriate for use on one’s lap, and most are not the size of an A4 sheet. although, some older portable computers, such as the Macintosh Portable and certain Zenith TurbosPort models, were sometimes described as laptops, their size and weight were too great for this category.
Laptops usually run on a single battery or from an external AC/DC adapter which can charge the battery while also supplying power to the computer itself.
An Acer laptop with touchpadAs personal computers, laptops are capable of the same tasks as a desktop PC, although they are typically less powerful for the same price. They contain components that are similar to their desktop counterparts and perform the same functions, but are miniaturized and optimized for mobile use and efficient power consumption. Laptops usually have liquid crystal displays and most of them use different memory modules for their RAM (for instance, SO-DIMM in lieu of the larger DIMMs). In addition to a built-in keyboard, they may utilize a touchpad (also known as a trackpad) or a pointing stick for input, though an external keyboard or mouse can usually be attached.
Terms sometimes used for subtypes of laptop computers include:
Laptops with screens typically less than 12 inches diagonally and a weight of less than 1.7kg. Their primary audience is usually business travellers, who need small, light laptops. Ultraportables are often very expensive and house power-saving CPUs and almost always have integrated graphics.
Laptops usually weighing in between 1.8kg and 2.8kg with a screen size of between 12 and 14 inches diagonally.
These usually have screens of 15 – 15.4 inches diagonally and a weight of around 3-3.5kg. They usually sacrifice a little computing power for smaller dimensions and longer battery life, although the length and width are usually determined by the screen size.
Desktop replacement computers
Powerful laptops meant to be mainly used in a fixed location and infrequently carried out due to their weight and size; the latter provides more space for powerful components and a big screen, usually measuring 15 inches or more. Desktop replacements tend to have limited battery life, rarely exceeding three hours, because the hardware does not optimize power efficiency.
Before laptop/notebook computers were technically feasible, similar ideas had been proposed, most notably Alan Kay’s Dynabook concept, developed at Xerox PARC in the early 1970s.
The first commercially available portable computer was the Osborne 1 in 1981, which used the CP/M operating system. although it was large and heavy compared to today’s laptops, with a tiny CRT monitor, it had a near-revolutionary impact on business, as professionals were able to take their computer and data with them for the first time. This and other luggables were inspired by what was probably the first portable computer, the Xerox NoteTaker, again developed at Xerox PARC, in 1976; however, only ten prototypes were built. the Osborne was about the size of a portable sewing machine, and importantly could be carried on a commercial aircraft. However, it was not possible to run the Osborne on batteries; it had to be plugged in.
A more enduring success was the Compaq Portable, the first product from Compaq, introduced in 1983, by which time the IBM Personal Computer had become the standard platform. although scarcely more portable than the Osborne machines, and also requiring AC power to run, it ran MS-DOS and was the first true IBM clone (IBM’s own later Portable Computer, which arrived in 1984, was notably less IBM PC-compatible than the Compaq).
Another significant machine announced in 1981, although first sold widely in 1983, was the Epson HX-20. A simple handheld computer, it featured a full-transit 68-key keyboard, rechargeable nickel-cadmium batteries, a small (120 x 32-pixel) dot-matrix LCD display with 4 lines of text, 20 characters per line text mode, a 24 column dot matrix printer, a Microsoft BASIC interpreter, and 16 kB of RAM (expandable to 32 kB).
However, arguably the first true laptop was the GRiD Compass 1101, designed by bill Moggridge in 1979-1980, and released in 1982. Enclosed in a magnesium case, it introduced the now familiar clamshell design, in which the flat display folded shut against the keyboard. the computer could be run from batteries, and was equipped with a 320200-pixel plasma display and 384 kilobyte bubble memory. It was not IBM-compatible, and its high price (US$ 10,000) limited it to specialized applications. However, it was used heavily by the U.S. military, and by NASA on the Space Shuttle during the 1980s. the GRiD’s manufacturer subsequently earned significant returns on its patent rights as its innovations became commonplace. GRiD Systems Corp. was later bought by Tandy (RadioShack).
Two other noteworthy early laptops were the Sharp PC-5000 and the Gavilan SC, announced in 1983 but first sold in 1984. the Gavilan was notably the first computer to be marketed as a laptop. It was also equipped with a pioneering touchpad-like pointing device, installed on a panel above the keyboard. like the GRiD Compass, the Gavilan and the Sharp were housed in clamshell cases, but they were partly IBM-compatible, although primarily running their own system software. both had LCD displays, and could connect to optional external printers.
The year 1983 also saw the launch of what was probably the biggest-selling early laptop, the Kyocera Kyotronic 85, which owed much to the design of the previous Epson HX-20. although it was at first a slow seller in Japan, it was quickly licensed by Tandy Corporation, Olivetti, and NEC, which saw its potential and marketed it respectively as TRS-80 Model 100 line (or Tandy 100), Olivetti M-10, NEC PC-8201. the machines ran on standard AA batteries. the Tandy’s built-in programs, including a BASIC interpreter, a text editor, and a terminal program, were supplied by Microsoft, and are thought to have been written in part by bill Gates himself. the computer was not a clamshell, but provided a tiltable 840-character LCD screen above a full-travel keyboard. With its internal modem, it was a highly portable communications terminal. Due to its portability, good battery life (and ease of replacement), reliability (it had no moving parts), and low price (as little as US$ 300), the model was highly regarded, becoming a favorite among journalists. It weighed less than 2 kg with dimensions of 30 21.5 4.5 cm (12 8.5 1.75 inches). Initial specifications included 8 kilobyte of RAM (expandable to 24 kB) and a 3 MHz processor. the machine was in fact about the size of a paper notebook, but the term had yet to come into use and it was generally described as a portable computer.
Among the first commercial IBM-compatible laptops were the IBM PC Convertible, introduced in 1986, and two Toshiba models, the T1000 and T1200, introduced in 1987. although limited floppy-based DOS machines, with the operating system stored in read-only memory, the Toshiba models were small and light enough to be carried in a backpack, and could be run off lead-acid batteries. These also introduced the now-standard resume feature to DOS-based machines: the computer could be paused between sessions, without having to be restarted each time.
The first laptops successful on a large scale came in large part due to a Request For Proposal (RFP) by the U.S. Air Force in 1987. This contract would eventually lead to the purchase of over 200,000 laptops. Competition to supply this contract was fiercely contested and the major PC companies of the time; IBM, Toshiba, Compaq, NEC, and Zenith Data Systems (ZDS), rushed to develop laptops in an attempt to win this deal. ZDS, which had earlier won a landmark deal with the IRS for its Z-171, was awarded this contract for its SupersPort series. the SupersPort series was originally launched with an Intel 8086 processor, dual floppy disk drives, a backlit, blue and white STN LCD screen, and a NiCD battery pack. Later models featured an Intel 80286 processor and a 20MB hard disk drive. On the strength of this deal, ZDS became the world’s largest laptop supplier in 1987 and 1988.
ZDS partnered with Tottori Sanyo in the design and manufacturing of these laptops. This relationship is notable because it was the first deal between a major brand and an Asian OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer). At the time, Compaq, IBM, Toshiba, NEC, etc. all designed and manufactured their own machines. However, after the success of the ZDS offering other relationships, like Compaq and Citizen, soon followed. At this time the quality of Japanese engineering and manufacturing in conjunction with the strength of the dollar relative to the yen (typically about 130 Yen = $1) drove most brands to suppliers in Japan. Companies such as Sanyo, Tottori Sanyo, Citizen, and Casio were all heavily involved in this business as OEMs. However, by the mid-1990s a weakening dollar and the rising viability of Taiwanese OEMs such as Acer, Quanta, Compal, Twinhead, and Chicony lead the supply base to rapidly shift from Japan to Taiwan. Additionally, brands which were more nimble and relied less on internal engineering such as Gateway, Dell and Micron began to rise quickly to leadership positions. Combinations such as Dell/Compal and Gateway/Quanta eventually became powerhouse partnerships and greatly contributed to the prominence of Taiwanese OEMs as the center of PC manufacturing from about 1995 onward.
Another notable computer was the Cambridge Z88, designed by Clive Sinclair, introduced in 1988. About the size of an A4 sheet of paper as well, it ran on standard batteries, and contained basic spreadsheet, word processing, and communications programs. It anticipated the future miniaturization of the portable computer; and, as a ROM-based machine with a small display, can — like the TRS-80 Model 100 — also be seen as a forerunner of the personal digital assistant.
The Macintosh Portable, Apple’s first attempt at a battery-powered computerThe first Apple Computer machine designed to be used on the go was the 1989 Macintosh Portable (although an LCD screen had been an option for the transportable Apple IIc in 1984). actually a luggable, the Mac Portable was praised for its clear active matrix display and long battery life, but was a poor seller due to its bulk. In the absence of a true Apple laptop, several compatible machines such as the Outbound Laptop were available for Mac users; however, for copyright reasons, the user had to supply a set of Mac ROMs, which usually meant having to buy a new or used Macintosh as well.
The Apple PowerBook series, introduced in October 1991, pioneered changes that are now de facto standards on laptops, such as the placement of the keyboard, room for palm rest, and the inclusion of a built-in pointing device (a trackball). the following year, IBM released its Thinkpad 700C, featuring a similar design (though with a distinctive red TrackPoint pointing device).
Later PowerBooks introduced the first 256-color displays (PowerBook 165c, 1993), and first true touchpad, first 16-bit sound recording, and first built-in Ethernet network adapter (PowerBook 500, 1994).
The summer of 1995 was a significant turning point in the history of notebook computing. In August of that year Microsoft introduced Windows 95. It was the first time that Microsoft had placed much of the power management control in the operating system. Prior to this point each brand used custom BIOS, drivers and in some cases, ASICs, to optimize the battery life of its machines. This move by Microsoft was controversial in the eyes of notebook designers because it greatly reduced their ability to innovate; however, it did serve its role in simplifying and stabilizing certain aspects of notebook design. Windows 95 also ushered in the importance of the CD-ROM in mobile computing and initiated the shift to the Intel Pentium processor as the base platform for notebooks. the Gateway Solo was the first notebook introduced with a Pentium processor and a CD-ROM. By also featuring a removeable hard disk drive and floppy drive it was the first three-spindle (optical, floppy, and hard disk drive) notebook computer. the Gateway Solo was extremely successful within the consumer segment of the market. In roughly the same time period the Dell Latitude, Toshiba Satellite, and IBM Thinkpad were reaching great success with Pentium-based two-spindle (hard disk and floppy disk drive) systems directed toward the corporate market.
An old (1997) Micron laptopAs technology improved during the 1990s, the usefulness and popularity of laptops increased. Correspondingly prices went down. several developments specific to laptops were quickly implemented, improving usability and performance. Among them were:
- Improved battery technology. the heavy lead-acid batteries were replaced with lighter and more efficient technologies, first nickel cadmium or NiCD, then nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and then lithium ion battery and lithium polymer.
- Power-saving processors. while laptops in 1991 were limited to the 80286 processor because of the energy demands of the more powerful 80386, the introduction of the Intel 386SL processor, designed for the specific power needs of laptops, marked the point at which laptop needs were included in CPU design. the 386SL integrated a 386SX core with a memory controller and this was paired with an I/O chip to create the SL chipset. It was more integrated than any previous solution although its cost was higher. It was heavily adopted by the major notebook brands of the time. Intel followed this with the 486SL chipset which used the same architecture. However, Intel had to abandon this design approach as it introduced its Pentium series. Early versions of the mobile Pentium required TAB mounting (also used in LCD manufacturing) and this initially limited the number of companies capable of supplying notebooks. However, Intel did eventually migrate to more standard chip packaging. One limitation of notebooks has always been the difficulty in upgrading the processor which is a common attribute of desktops. Intel did try to solve this problem with the introduction of the MMC for mobile computing. the MMC was a standard module upon which the CPU and external cache memory could sit. It gave the notebook buyer the potential to upgrade his CPU at a later date, eased the manufacturing process some, and was also used in some cases to skirt U.S. import duties as the CPU could be added to the chassis after it arrived in the U.S. Intel stuck with MMC for a few generations but ultimately could not maintain the appropriate speed and data integrity to the memory subsystem through the MMC connector.
- Improved liquid crystal displays, in particular active-matrix TFT (Thin-Flim Transitor) LCD technology. Early laptop screens were black and white, blue and white, or grayscale, STN (Super Twist Nematic) passive-matrix LCDs prone to heavy shadows, ghosting and blurry movement (some portable computer screens were sharper monochrome plasma displays, but these drew too much current to be powered by batteries). Color STN screens were used for some time although their viewing quality was poor. By about 1991 , two new color LCD techologies hit the mainstream market in a big way; Dual STN and TFT. the Dual STN screens solved many of the viewing problems of STN at a very affordable price and the TFT screens offered excellent viewing quality although initially at a steep price. DSTN continued to offer a significant cost advantage over TFT until the mid-90s before the cost delta dropped to the point that DSTN was no longer used in notebooks. Improvements in production technology meant displays became larger, sharper, had higher native resolutions, faster response time and could display color with great accuracy, making them an acceptable substitute for a traditional CRT monitor.
- Improved hard disk technology. Early laptops and portables had only floppy disk drives. As thin, high-capacity hard disk drives with higher reliability and shock resistance and lower power consumption became available, users could store their work on laptop computers and take it with them. the 3.5 HDD was created initially as a response to the needs of notebook designers that needed smaller, lower power consumption products. As pressure to continue to shrink the notebook size even further, the 2.5 HDD was introduced.
- Improved connectivity. Internal modems and standard serial, parallel, and PS/2 ports on IBM PC-compatible laptops made it easier to work away from home; the addition of network adapters and, from 1997, USB, as well as, from 1999, Wi-Fi, made laptops as easy to use with peripherals as a desktop computer.
The $100 laptop
A first generation prototype of the $100 laptop
In 2005, faculty members from the MIT Media Lab including Nicholas Negroponte introduced the $100 laptop and the One Laptop Per Child project. the aim is to design, manufacture, and distribute laptops that are sufficiently inexpensive to provide every child in the world access to knowledge and modern forms of education. the laptops are to be sold to governments and issued to children by schools. These equipments, of which many prototypes have already been presented, will be rugged, Linux-based, and so energy efficient that a hand-cranking dynamo can alone provide sufficient power for operation (although this hand-crank has since been removed). Ad-hoc wireless mesh networking may be used to allow many machines to share a single Internet connection.
Many common problems with home personal computers can be resolved by Austin computer repair services. Typical complaints from users may include a machine that has completely stopped working or is running too slowly. The issue may be related to faulty hardware, outdated software, or viruses from the internet. If a personal computer will no longer power on, it may be a hardware issue. for instance, when you press the power button, nothing happens and no lights are visible. Typical points of failure are the hard drive or fan. if the main unit seems to start normally, but there is nothing on the screen, it may be a problem with the monitor especially if no lights can be seen on the monitor itself. Many people experience frustration because their machine is running too slowly. This can be caused by a variety of factors. if a virus or spyware has infected the computer, performance may be impaired. Most viruses are downloaded from websites on the internet without the user’s knowledge. The virus is basically a program that gets on your hard drive and interferes with proper functioning. Viruses must be removed in order to restore speed and operation. Another reason for slow computers is outdated hardware. There are three main factors which contribute to speed and performance: hard drive space, memory, and processor speed. Issues arise when an older hard disk no longer has very much free space. The hard disk is a storage area for files and programs. it needs a sufficient amount of free space to operate in top condition. Low memory is another factor. Memory is where programs are stored while they are being executed. Increasing memory can result in significant gains in overall performance. The final component is processor speed. Older computers commonly have slower processors which means they simply will not run as fast as the latest models when processing applications and performing functions. to help with outdated hardware, computer repair companies can recommend and perform upgrades for individual components or the entire machine. Home computers connect to the internet many ways, including cable, phone lines and satellite connections. another preventive function of computer repair service is to assist in securing the home network or wireless connection with a router or other security method. This type of configuration ensures no one can connect to your home network or machine without your knowledge. it usually involves a password or network key in order to access your home system. Software is another important component of computers. these are the programs which control your system and allow you to do things like view pictures, create documents, or listen to music. if any software programs are out of date or damaged, overall system functions may be affected. Service technicians can help get the latest software updates and versions to ensure a high level of functionality. For any home computers experiencing the type of problems described here, finding a service technician for Austin computer repair is a good way to get your machine running in top condition. There is no need to continue working in frustration due to recurring problems or speed issues. About the Author
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(saran). Submitted on Tue, 22 may 2012 Time: 9:25 AM
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Whitesburg Middle School students try out their new laptops in this October 2011 file photo. the Huntsville school district’s latest technology push will bring in 11,000 leased laptops for students for the 2012-2013 school year. (The Huntsville Times)
HUNTSVILLE, Alabama — All Huntsville students from fourth grade up will have laptop computers when they return to class in August.
The school district on Monday entered into an agreement to lease 11,000 computers from Hewlett-Packard at a cost of about $2.3 million per year. the contract will allow the district to speed up plans to put personal computers or tablets in the hands of all students.
Aaron King, the district’s director of support operations, explained it would have cost about $12 million, or $1,100 per computer, if the system bought the laptops at the prices set on the state bid list.
Leasing the computers will cost the district $207 per laptop per year. at the end of the lease agreement, which has not yet been released to the public, the district can buy the computers for $45 each, King said.
When board members asked Superintendent Casey Wardynski which students would have laptops, he said the district was “probably looking at every child.”
The district is anticipating all students in third grade and younger receiving iPads or other tablets.
The new laptops will be leased and prepared for students over the summer.
“Holy smokes, that’s incredible,” board member Jennie Robinson said of the time frame. Initially, the district’s one-to-one computer program was anticipated to take several years to establish.
“(Information Technology) has a heck of a job ahead of them,” King said.
King said the 11,000 leased laptops would be assigned to students from sixth to 12th grades. the district already has laptops to cover fourth- and fifth-graders.
Wardynski in October initiated a technology push in the district that provided about 3,600 laptops to all fifth-graders and some ninth-graders. using about $853,000 set aside in the district’s 2012 budget for technological upgrades, the district also assigned each principal an iPad and a laptop computer.
Earlier this school year each elementary school was allotted 28 iPads and each high school received 30 MacBook Air computers.
Laurie McCaulley, board president, on Monday asked King if all schools would be outfitted with wireless access by the time students have their computers.
King said the district is on track to have wi-fi in all facilities sometime in the first semester.
Wardynski said the technology will be in place as soon as possible, in part to begin a transition to digital textbooks.
“If we want to skip this next round of buying paper textbooks, we really need to have this all in place,” Wardynski said.
Are you in search to get a file workplace that matches the style of your master bedroom or place of work? you will really find it difficult to find the perfect the one that will suit your preferred style; for this reason, made to order file desks are raised. Now, it is possible to choose from the variety of wood materials and styles for your aspiration file workplace.
File desks come in number of styles and decorative improvements. with made to order file desks, you can choose for the size as well as the features that is to be included in your product or service. the user will be given the chance to choose whether he or she prefers any shaker or quest style. Objective style may bring an antique feeling into a traditional style although shaker style may bring contemporary style into traditional style.
Historically, file desks were applied as a kitchen table for documents. But while personal computers got into the scene, its perform included holding the computer in place. to add a lot more convenience towards the user, manufacturers designed knee-holes. Right now, file desks are shaped in you with an wide open space underneath so that the hips and thighs can unhampered move although doing a laptop or computer job. In addition, custom made report desks may also be added along with other features like additional compartments and glass-door units. some contemporary designs are L-shaped, intended for bigger workspace.
Made to order file desks are attractive to most consumers not only due to the decorative carvings. the buyer can gain benefit I performing a job merely by modifying the dwelling of his / her file workplace. a U-shaped, Forward-facing report desk permits the user to experience a clear view of his laptop or computer even while hovering. Others include more compartments and magic formula drawers to ensure that more privateness is achieved even while functioning. most of all, made to order file desks will surely fit in its selected area because the buyer can request for distinct size and height.
Made to order file desks can outline your persona to your guest and guests. it may actually bring an effect to a potential business lover or client. for these reasons, actually need sure that the craftsmanship could be pleasing not just to you but also to individuals that may observe it.
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The boosting demand for pcs in all fields of everyday living, and the development in technologies prospects to pcs today becoming an individual of the world’s growing digital waste. Disposing of personal computers is an important issue as it comprises some environmentally harmful parts. this is why personal pc recycling is now carried out to decrease the selection of computers landing up in storage and landfills.
Recycling is the procedure of saving usable components of own pcs. It is important that old methods are not thrown absent as they have perilous substances like lead, which are environmentally harmful.
CPUs and monitors have loads of recoverable and reusable sections like glass, silica, mercury, plastic, aluminum, copper, gold, silver and lead. In addition to extracting usable areas, right here are some other points to allow with home pc recycling.
All very own personal computers and peripherals will need to be donated to educational facilities, charities, churches and organizations that take donations. Even personal pc peripherals like keyboards, webcams and scanners can be donated as many teams will be all set to take these peripherals to change their damaged units. Components of aged personal computers that are still purposeful will need to be reused. if a system has to be upgraded, do it by maintaining some sections of the aged laptop like mice, keep an eye on, keyboard and printer.
Old a single that is usable but requires improvements need to be refurbished so that they are usable. Units that are not useful can be repaired, mounted or up-to-date to be certain they work.
It is better to lease particular systems as an alternative of shopping for them. this prospects to improved probability of recycling, reuse and refurbishment. One time you return the program to the producer at the stop of the lease, they can upgrade and reuse it.
So you can see that there are countless alternatives for recycling. All you will need is determination and belief in preserving the natural environment risk-free, and stealthily, there will be an boost in the number of individuals recycling their computers.
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The ins and outs of cloud computing
Cloud computing – you’ve been hearing about this phrase even more normally recently. It appears that laptop or computer consumers are no for a longer time material with utilizing only tangible devices for storage. They want to find that certain, indestructible storage platform. It appears that system may be the cloud technological innovation. Can it be, actually?
What does ‘cloud’ make reference to?
Although the ‘cloud’ thought may sound fresh right now, it’s got really been around for rather some time during the earth of organization. It basically refers to a group of personal computers that is certainly put together to deliver knowledge and computer software knowledge effectively, because of its architecture, which happens to be especially suitable for this sort of a support.
How may be the notion of ‘cloud’ just a little various now?
As mentioned earlier, ‘cloud’ refers back to the grid architecture of computer systems which have been holding and delivering information. this time close to, programs can purpose independently in the configurations put together in servers and distinct personal computers. Hardware is not any more time as essential as ahead of. Computing relies upon within the network of computer systems that form the ‘cloud’.
So how exactly does cloud computing perform?
Supplied the concepts over, how does cloud computing perform anyway? in cloud computing, the ‘cloud’ treats the computers which might be involved as collective virtual sources. Broadband Net will help by making it achievable for purposes or software for being run totally web-based. It truly is no more a difficulty what OS you are making use of in your particular computer, as an example, after you are planning to run a web-based software provided that that software is staying hosted in a very cloud.
Exactly what are examples of web-based programs?
You may not realize it yet however you could have been routinely making the most of cloud computing. One example is, e mail services this sort of as Gmail, Hotmail or Yahoomail make use of the cloud architecture. What this means is that if you log into one among these expert services, you log into it from a remote laptop or computer. You aren’t definitely running the appliance with your desktop or laptop computer. your account particulars, which include your folders, aren’t stored with your personal computer. Alternatively, it really is in the computer cloud. So, you will be essentially employing cloud computing to protected your information once you ship it your self by email using a web-based services.
When employing a web-based program, you are able to think of your self as accessing the architecture’s entrance stop. the cloud computing system’s back end would be the cloud itself. the two ends are generally connected when using the help of an internet link.
Steve Quimby is a writer of product reviews and consumer guides for Ereviewguide.com. his latest guide explains the question How does Cloud Computing work